A clause is comprised of a group of words which includes a subject and a finite verb. A clause contains only one subject and one verb. The subject of a clause can be mentioned or hidden, but the verb must be apparent and distinguishable.
A clause “a group of words containing a subject and predicate and functioning as a member of a complex or compound sentence. ” – Merriam-Webster
I graduated last year. (One clause sentence)
When I came here, I saw him. (Two clause sentence)
When I came here, I saw him, and he greeted me. (Three clause sentence)
An independent clause functions on its own to make a meaningful sentence and looks much like a regular sentence.
In a sentence two independent clauses can be connected by the coordinators: and, but, so, or, nor, for*, yet*.
He is a wise man.
I like him.
Can you do it?
Do it please. (Subject you is hidden)
I read the whole story.
I want to buy a phone, but I don’t have enough money. (Two independent clauses)
He went to London and visited the Lords. (Subject of the second clause is ‘he,' so “he visited the Lords” is an independent clause.)
Alex smiles whenever he sees her. (One independent clause)
A dependent clause cannot function on its own because it leaves an idea or thought unfinished. It is also called subordinate clause. Dependent clauses help the independent clauses complete the sentence. A dependent clause alone cannot form a complete sentence.
The subordinators do the work of connecting the dependent clause to another clause to complete the sentence. In each of the dependent clause, the first word is a subordinator. Subordinators include relative pronouns, subordinating conjunctions, and noun clause markers.
When I was dating Daina, I had an accident.
I know the man who stole the watch.
He bought a car which was too expensive.
I know that he cannot do it.
He does not know where he was born.
If you don’t eat, I won’t go.
He is a very talented player though he is out of form.